Research, Evaluation, Quality Improvement and Evidence-informed Practice: Where Does it all Fit in the Bigger Picture?
PowerPoint presentation developed by the Research and Evaluation Department and presented at the 2nd Annual Northern Health Research Days Conference in 2008. Describes how research, evaluation, quality improvement and evidence-informed practice are distinct activities but use similar skills and approaches. Provides an overview and makes a connection between the activities, recognizing that Northern Health staff may be involved or wanting to be involved in one or more of these activities. Outlines how the Research and Evaluation Department support these activities.
Knowledge Synthesis, Translation and Exchange (KSTE) Cheat Sheet (UNBC-NH Knowledge to Action Working Group)
A ‘cheat sheet’ of definitions of knowledge translation, knowledge exchange, and knowledge synthesis prepared by a joint UNBC and Northern Health working group. Relevant references provided. 7 pages.
Evaluation Frameworks, Toolkits and Workbooks
Framework for Program Evaluation in Public Health (US Centre for Disease Control)
An all-around excellent resource for evaluation in clear language and with a helpful level of detail. Covers six steps for evaluation and highlights standards for evaluation. Section on using logic models as a means to describe the program being evaluated & select corresponding evaluation measures. Has a comprehensive set of complementary documents for learning and applying the framework. Can be applied to most areas of healthcare. 92 pages (self-study guide).
Planning an Evaluation (University of Wisconsin Extension Division)
A series of guides and worksheets for doing evaluation that include guides on questionnaire design. Guides can be purchased for a nominal fee (e.g., $1-$30).
World Health Organization Evaluation Workshop Series
Clear-language, comprehensive guides to evaluation – designed for evaluating drug addiction services evaluation but includes many applicable concepts and tools.
Framework - 31 pages.
Workbook 1 Planning evaluations (planning evaluation in 8 steps.) - 99pages.
Workbook 2 Implementing evaluations (data collection, analysis & reporting) - 47 pages.
Workbook 3 Needs Assessment Evaluation - 52 pages.
Workbook 4 Process Evaluation - 60 pages.
Workbook 5 Cost Evaluation – 53 pages.
Workbook 6 Client Satisfaction Evaluation – 38 pages.
Workbook 7 Outcome Evaluation – 74 pages.
Workbook 8 Economic Evaluation – 38 pages.
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Logic Model Resources
Logic Models (University of Wisconsin Extension Division)
A basic overview of logic model components with several pdf and presentation links for specific applications.
Enhancing Program Performance with Logic Models
An excellent on-line mini-course with two modules – the basics, and an example of a community nutrition education program:
W.K. Kellogg Foundation Logic Model Development Guide
Not specific to health services but a commonly cited tool. 72 pages.
For extensive lists of evaluation and logic model resources see:
CDC Evaluation site: http://www.cdc.gov/eval/resources.htm
Kellogg Foundation Knowledgebase site: http://www.wkkf.org/default.aspx?tabid=134&CID=-1&CatID=281&NID=212&LanguageID=0
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Research Development & Support Resources
An introductory presentation that outlines the key elements of research (J. Miller, Interior Health)
Determining a Research Question
Perhaps one of the most important first steps in undertaking research is to determine a well-defined and concise research question. The following document outlines a step by step approach to articulating a research question. Determining a research question
How to Conduct a Literature Review
Performing a Literature Review
This report is a guide for conducting literature reviews, and the discussion includes a description of a literature search, an explanation of the purpose of a literature review, tips on how to find resources, and directions on synthesizing information.
Search for Evidence and Critical Appraisal: Health Services Research
This comprehensive guide provides a comprehensive approach to conducting evidence searches. It includes a template for the reporting of a literature search, as well as a tool for documenting the results of an evidence search.
Critical Review of Quantitative Research Worksheets
These worksheets are useful tools for evaluating the quality of quantitative and qualitative research. They use a checklist format to orient the appraiser’s attention to key elements that constitute high quality research.
Critical Review of Quantitative Research Worksheet (J. Miller, Interior Health)
Questions to Consider During a Critical Review of Qualitative Research (J. Miller, & A. Locas, Interior Health)
Northern Health Library
This brochure published by the Northern Health Library presents the services that are available to Northern Health staff and physicians. It lists several databases that Northern Health subscribes to and describes other services offered such as Northern Health’s library catalogue and interlibrary loans. Northern Health Library Services
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Finding and Selecting Measures
Identifying and Developing Appropriate Measures
This presentation provides an overview of the many topics to consider when attempting to identify and select measures. For example, it outlines the issues of standardization, reliability, validity, sensitivity, and specificity.
Identifying and Developing Appropriate Measures
The National Quality Measures Clearinghouse™ (NQMC)
Sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, is a searchable database for information on specific evidence-based health care quality measures and measure sets. User-friendly, can be searched by disease/condition, treatment/ intervention. Includes supportive information for selecting and applying measures.
Describes the various uses of measures including use for research, quality improvement, and accountability.
Tests & Measures in the Social Sciences
10,800 measures available in several compilations. Search by category/compilation. Compiled by Helen Hough, Librarian, University of Texas in Arlington.
Detailed resources for finding tests & measures:
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An Overview of the Methodological Approach of Action Research
This website reviews the fundamentals of action research, including its philosophical underpinnings, the evolution of action research, the application of action research methods, and provides case studies as examples. Several resources are provided for further reading in the reference section. http://www.web.net/~robrien/papers/arfinal.html
This website provides a brief overview of the field of qualitative research. It summarizes the characteristics and goals of qualitative research, as well as points out the advantages and disadvantages of this paradigm.
Online Qualitative Data Analysis
This website offers many resources regarding qualitative data analysis, including tips on how to prepare data, how and what to code, and how to write a final research report.
The following links lead to schematic diagrams that depict the structure of several research designs:
Randomized Control Trials: http://library.downstate.edu/EBM2/2200.htm
Double Blind Study: http://library.downstate.edu/EBM2/2300.htm
Case Series/Case Report Studies: http://library.downstate.edu/EBM2/2600.htm
Cohort Study: http://library.downstate.edu/EBM2/2400.htm
Case Series and Case Reports: http://library.downstate.edu/EBM2/2600.htm
Meta Analysis: http://library.downstate.edu/EBM2/2700.htm
Sampling Page of Research Methods Knowledge Base (web-based textbook by William M.K. Trochim)
This website explains the key terms in sampling, distinguishes probability and non-probability sampling, and relates sampling to statistics. This page is part of a comprehensive website that covers all aspects of research.
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Designing and Implementing Surveys (M. Wasdell, & R. Spiwak, Fraser Health)
This presentation provides a comprehensive overview of survey research.
Designing and Implementing Surveys
Survey Research (Research Methods Knowledge Base. W. Trochim, Cornell University)
An electronic text book that serves as a good general resource on all aspects of surveys as well as other research methods.
Survey and Questionnaire Design
A free, readable, on-line tutorial overview of all steps in doing a survey or questionnaire.
Survey Steps (Statistics Canada)
This is a somewhat technical guide to conducting surveys. Includes some good considerations around question design.
Statistics at Square One (eBritish Medical Journal)
An electronic counterpart to a best-selling statistics textbook in the UK.
A more general and comprehensive free statistics e-text. Has a few good introductory chapters for foundational concepts.
Intuitive Biostatistics: Choosing a Statistical Test
This website provides a useful table for selecting appropriate statistical tests as well as a discussion on choosing amongst parametric and non-parametric tests.
Statistics Decision Tree
This website provides an interactive method for determining appropriate statistical tests to use in different research scenarios.
Protocols for the Conduct of Research in Northern Health
Northern Health Research Policy
This document outlines the approval process and expectations for research being conducted within, on, or for Northern Health. This includes expectations for the participation of Northern Health staff, patients and clients in research projects, as well as accessing health related data and information.
Northern Health Research Review Committee
The Research Review Committee is mandated by NH policy to approve, reject, propose modifications to or terminate any proposed or ongoing research involving humans that is conducted within NH, or by members of NH, in order to ensure that ethical principles and standards respecting the personal welfare and rights of research participants have been recognized and accommodated.
Link to Northern Health Research Review Committee Webpage:
Research Review Committee Application Guidelines.
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Obtaining Research Grant Funding
Preparing a Research Funding Proposal (University of New South Wales: Research Bites)
This one-page document provides an overview of applying for research grant funding, including information on the types of funding available, how to prepare a proposal, and a top-ten list of tips and tricks for being successful in obtaining grant funding.
Preparing a Research Funding Proposal
Top Twelve Grant Writing Tips for Success
Canadian Institutes of Health Research
This link to Government of Canada's health research funding agency provides information on available grants and how CIHR supports the work of more than 11,000 researchers and trainees iin universities, teaching hospitals, and research institutes across Canada.
BC Rural and Remote Health Research Network (BCRRHRN): Funding Opportunities
The BCRRHRN funding webpage lists funding opportunities for research projects, programs of research, or research knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE) activities.
The BCRRHRN Training Grants page lists fellowships, scholarships, funded internships, and other awards designated for research trainees.
Knowledge Translation and Exchange
Canadian Institutes for Health Research
The Canadian Institutes for Health Research Knowledge Translation (KT) webpage defines the enterprise of KT, offers recent news in the field, and provides links to several resources. http://www.cihr-irsc.gc.ca/e/29529.html
Canadian Health Services Research Foundation
This website from the Canadian Health Services Research Foundation also provides many resources, such as links to KT networks, KT tools, and a conference call service known as Researcher on Call.
Knowledge Translation, Synthesis, and Exchange Cheat Sheet
This reference document, devised by the Knowledge to Action Working Group in northern BC, is an overview of knowledge translation, synthesis, and exchange. It clearly defines terms and concepts in the field, and represents how the Knowledge to Action Working Group has constructed these concepts in a way that is relevant to the partnership between Northern Health and the University of Northern British Columbia.
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